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# Feed conversion ratio poultry

### Feed conversion ratio - Wikipedi

Feed conversion ratio (FCR) is the ratio of inputs to outputs; it is the inverse of feed efficiency which is the ratio of outputs to inputs. FCR is widely used in hog and poultry production, while FE is used more commonly with cattle Feed Conversion Ratio is a topic of great importance in livestock farming, most especially commercial animal farms. Feed takes about 70 percent of the total cost of production in poultry production, hence the feed conversion ratio has considerable monetary importance to a livestock farmer. What is Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) The feed conversion ratio (FCR) is the amount of feed ingested by an animal which can be converted into one kilo of live weight. This definition also applies to a single-age poultry flock held in an enclosed house. It is important that this house contains an indication of the amount of feed that has been eaten Feed conversion ratio calculation in poultry FCR in poultry is calculated by dividing the total input of the feed from the weight gained by animals or by the number of produced eggs. To be more precise, the input is divided by the output. Catfish feed conversion ratio What Are Feed Conversion Ratios? Feed Conversion Ratios (FCRs) measure the amount of feed/crops needed to produce a unit of meat. FCRs and related issues are generally discussed in terms of efficiency. For example, chickens are more efficient converters crops that cows

### Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) in Livestock Farmin

1. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) is a measure of how well a flock converts feed intake (feed usage) into live weight. Small changes in FCR at any given feed price will have a substantial impact on financial margins. Solving, or preventing, FCR problems in a flock requires both good planning and good management
2. Also known as the feed to meat ratio, this number is simply the pounds of feed given to a chicken divided by the weight of the cleaned carcass. The sad truth is that the feed conversion rate for chickens raised by nearly all backyard hobbyists is two, three, or even four times as high as the ratio for industrial chickens
3. Feed conversion ratio sheep have an average FCR of 4-5 on high concentrate rations, 5-6 on good quality forage and more than 6 on low-quality forage. On straw ration, it can be as high as 40. FCR for older sheep that means 8 months is higher than those for lamb. Poultry has an average FCR of 1.5
4. In poultry, feed based on maggots, like larvae of black soldier fly Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was defined as the ratio of the amount of feed ingested throughout the rearing period to the body weight gained during that period. Dressing-out percentages were computed as the ratio between warm carcass and live weights at slaughter
5. Feed conversion ratio for cattle is 12.5 Feed conversion ratio in fish are: 1.7 and 1.5, for tilapia and catfish respectively. Feed conversion ratio sheep and Goat have an average FCR of 4.5 on high concentrate feed, 5.5 on good quality forage and about 30 on straw ration
6. A broiler will consume approximately 1.2 kg of feed (broiler starter + grower) from week 1 to week 3 A broiler will weigh about 1.52 kg at the end of week 4 A broiler chicken will eat about 8.6 kg of feed (broiler finisher) from week 4 to week 9 A broiler will have an average body weight of 4.65 kg at the end of week

In the United States and Canada, the poultry industry's standard performance measurement is the feed conversion ratio (FCR). Calculating FCR is as simple as taking the total amount of feed consumed by the flock and dividing it by the amount of weight gained or the number of eggs produced. In other words, FCR equals input divided by output The feed efficiency is a major studied aspect of the poultry genetics companies who produce the commercial lines of layers. HiSex, Hubbard, ISA, DeKalb, Tetra and so forth. These companies offer these commercial hens and the buyers, who are large egg producers, have this stuff down to a decimal point Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) FCR represents the proportion of food that is converted into meat and is the hardest figure to calculate accurately, particularly if you have a continuous flow building with bins feeding into several rooms In animal husbandry, feed conversion ratio (FCR) is a measure of an animal's efficiency in converting feed into increased body mass. Specifically, FCR may be defined as weight gain divided by feed intake. Two additional terms are used by the farmer, the biological FCR and the economics FCR

### Tips to Improve Feed Conversion Ratio (Fcr) in Poultry

• 1.54: this is not the feed conversion ratio of a chicken, but of the best EXCELIUM swine specially selected for feed conversion. While the French production breeding average is around 2.85, the average for the total population of EXCELIUM animals is 2.10. At 1.54, this new feed conversion ratio for 30-115 kg reflects the intensive selection effort made for feed efficiency of hog lineages by.
• Modern-day broilers are capable of converting dietary feed ingredients into chicken-meat at ratios approaching 2:1 and constitute a more ecologically sustainable protein source for uman onsumption than alternative sources
• Feed Conversion Ratio 1. Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) The Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) is the number of units of feed an animal uses to produce one unitof product. For animals raised for meat, the product is body mass gained by the animals, measured in lbs.or kg of meat

Calculation of FCR in poultry and definition of term FCR for poultry farming.Every farmer should be able to calculate fcr and understand fcr.So in this video.. Feeding broiler chickens the appropriate amount of feed per day is essential in that it helps them achieve optimal health and size, helping you turn out quality products for consumers. Broilers — chickens raised for meat — are well-known for their high feed-conversion ratios and fast growth rates Optimizing Broiler Feed Conversion Ratio This article has been written specifically for poultry producers in Latin America. However, the recommendations given are expected to be useful and informative for other world regions. The aim of this article is to provide information on areas for consideration/action if a flock FCR problem exists The FCR is the ratio between the kilograms of feed consumed and the weight of chicken sold. For example, if a farmer uses 3.5 kg of feed to produce a 1.75 kg chicken, then the FCR is 2 (3.5 divided by 1.75). FCR is the measure for an entire flock of birds and not for individuals the poultry industry's standard performance measurement is the feed conversion ratio (FCR). Calculating FCR is as simple as taking the total amount of feed consumed by the flock and dividing it by..

### What is Feed Conversion Ratio (FCRs) and Factors Effect on FC

Carlos Simões Nunes, in Enzymes in Human and Animal Nutrition, 2018. 6.9 Cellulases as Feed Additives. Direct-fed cellulases as monocomponent additives are generally not very successful in improving monogastric animals' (pig and poultry) performance (digestibility, feed conversion ratio, and daily weight gain) [75,76], as are other microbial enzymes such as phytases [77,78,79] as well as. The tables below are base on feed with high energy content and you can't easily find such feed in Nigeria. Because of this, you will feed your birds slightly more than what the tables indicate. Below is a feed plan and body weight target for Isa & Shaver Brown (Common in Nigeria) from day old to 90 weeks of age Advances in modern layer performance mean gains of almost three extra eggs per bird annually. Bird performance in the commercial poultry industry has shown a staggering improvement over recent decades. Modern broilers weigh about 2.5 kg at 39 days, with a live-weight feed conversion ratio of 1.6 kg of feed per kilogram of body weight gain

Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) or feed conversion efficiency (FCE) is the overall ability of livestock to turn feed and fodder mass into body (muscle) mass. Commercial pig's conversion ratio is usually about 3 - 5.(depending on specific breed) This will affect the price consumers pay for various pork cuts. VS. The Majority of Small Family Farm The feed conversion ratio is a measure of the amount of feed required (in kilogrammes) to produce one kilogramme of poultrymeat (dressed carcase weight). It is used here as a proxy measure for the intensity of on-farm GHG emissions. Indicator: quantity of poultry feed produced per kilogramme (kg) of poultrymeat produced. Desired outcome. (2020). Genetic analysis of residual feed intake, feed conversion ratio and related growth parameters in broiler chicken: a review. World's Poultry Science Journal: Vol. 76, No. 2, pp. 304-317 and considers the cost of feed per 1 kg of meat produced, the feed-to-meat conversion ratio and the sale price of boiler meat. Feed quality, heat regulation, veterinary/sanitary control and animal density within breeding houses (on average 10 animals/m²) are the most important factors affecting growth Similarly, a difference was observed in the feed conversion ratios (FCR) of the two groups: 1.72 for control versus 1.69 for the Digestarom® DC group, as shown in Figure 5. Overall, Digestarom® DC supplementation resulted in a 2.83% increase in feed intake, a 4.96% increase in weight gain and a 1.75% decrease in FCR

Fine DDGS led to an increased feed intake and body weight, with no impact on feed conversion ratio, and coarse DDGS increased gizzard weight. Conclusions. There is a great deal of work remaining to be done on feed particle size manipulation relative to poultry live performance Conversion ratios or conversion efficiency are used to measure the ratio of feed inputs (either in the form of food crops, or pasture/grazing land) to output in the form of food product. 2 Feed conversion ratio (FCR) is used to measure the mass quantity of feed required to produce one kilogram of animal product (e.g. meat)

### Feed-to-Meat - Conversion Inefficiency Ratios - A Well-Fed

Of all the broiler traits, feed conversion ratio (FCR) -- the amount of feed required to produce a unit of live weight -- has the greatest potential for reducing environmental impact. Due to Aviagen's progress in FCR, a 2.5kg broiler will eat 0.5kg less feed, translating to a more favourable bottom line for growers and a decrease in the. Animals and measurement of feeding traits. A Chinese local chicken population, a Tianlu Black chicken pure-line N416, was used for measurement of growth and feed conversion rate traits in this study. Chickens were housed in a closed type henhouse to control the temperature and illumination during the brooding period (0-35 d of age)

8. Lower feed conversion. In addition to being able to sell your duck eggs for higher prices than your chicken eggs, ducks generally have a lower feed conversion ratio - meaning a duck needs to eat less feed than a chicken does in order to produce one egg. That will save you money on feed. 9. Duck eggs are large Several indicators have been used to determine the efficiency of growth 83 and egg production in poultry, such as the feed conversion ratio (FCR), residual 84 feed intake (RFI), or residual heat. An increase in stocking density was found to negatively affect the feed conversion ratio (+3.1%) and depress the daily BW gain of broilers (-5.5%) during the period from d 32 to 39 (P ≤ 0.05). Litter quality was reduced with the high stocking density as early as d 25 The performance of poultry in terms of feed conversion ratio is largely dependent on ME values of feed ingredients. While Pym [ 77 ] and Fairfull and Chambers [ 78 ] once postulated that the effect of genetic selection on ME is relatively insignificant, this theory requires a second look at recent studies indicate otherwise, with growing birds.

Feed expenses are often the main budget item on fish farms. Therefore, reliable indicators are needed in order to determine the level of performance obtained from a feed or an additive. The feed conversion ratio (F.C.R.) is a relevant example of such indicators as it reflects how effective a feed strategy can be. What other variables are required in order to complement th 9 Reasons Why You Have Poor and Stunted Growth in Broiler Chickens. Poor and stunted growth in broiler chickens is a very frustrating phenomenon among broiler farmers. The key success factors in the profitability of broiler farming are uniformity in the flock size, feed conversion ratio, and weight gain of the broiler chicken at the time of sale Stocking rate - Feed intake and efficiency in broiler chickens were adversely affected by high stocking rate (30-40 kg/m2) compared to moderate stocking (24 kg/m2) even under conditions of sufficient feeder space. The effect of stocking rate and feed utilisation could be attributed mainly to the restricted access to the feed, increased heat.

### Feed conversion rate for chickens Avian Aqua Mise

Feed Conversion. Ocean-farmed salmon represent a significant ecological advantage in terms of feed conversion, even when compared to other farmed animals. Ocean-farmed salmon feed comprises about 30% fishmeal, a name for the otherwise unused forage fish that is converted to food Greater body weight and better feed conversion ratio (FCR) are among important economic goals in broiler farming. The bans on application of AGP have affected this goal, resulting in poor growth performance of broilers. Aloe vera, as an additive to broiler chicken feed, has great potentials for improving growth performance, carcass. Ref: FCR In my experience FCR depends on various factors type of house, breed, feed ,sex chicks. We are mostly enjoying 1.55 to 1.7 FCR as per the conditions in PAKISTAN at the age of 37 days and average weight 2.1 kg in general with HD feed quality in environment control houses Poultry Layer Farming 1. Introduction Poultry egg and meat are important sources of high quality proteins, minerals and vitamins to balance the human diet. Commercial layer strains are now available with traits of high egg production and high feed conversion efficiency. Superior germplasm of chicken have been developed by both publi

of growth performance and feed conversion ratio in poultry (Miles et al., 2006; Dibner and Buttin, 2002 and Izat et al., 1990). However, constant treatment of poultry by antibiotic may result in residues of these substances in poultry products and bacteria resistance against treatments in human body provided to each bird. If you have two or more birds and you feed them in a group, divide the total pounds of feed by the number of birds in the group. 3. Calculate feed efficiency by dividing Total Pounds of Feed by ADG. For example, broiler chickens gain approximately 1 pound per 2 to 2.5 pounds of feed consumed. 4 Feed Conversion Ratio. Slaughter Weight. FCR. Figure 4 presents the average slaughter weight (left axis) in the countries included in the study, as well as the feed conversionratio (FCR) achieved (right axis). The FCR serves as an indicator for technical efficiency, but must be interpreted with the slaughter weight, as feed conversion declines. Together with growth rate, days to market and mortality, feed efficiency has been considered as one of the important parameters in assessing the potential of bird strain or feeding program etc. In N. America the value is calculated by dividing feed intake by weight gain, and so values of around 1.9 are common for 42 d old birds

### Feed Conversion Ratio Formula in Livestock Agri Farmin

• Growth rate, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio. The Ross birds had a higher growth rate than the Rowan Ranger birds, resulting in higher mean live weight and carcass weight at slaughter (Fig. 1).Analysis of the interaction between hybrid and diet for growth rate (P = 0.002) showed that Ross birds grew slower when fed the high-protein feed than when fed the low-protein feed (55.3 ± 0.5.
• Poultry will only eat as much grit as they need. Offer grit either by itself or mixed with feed or whole grains such as wheat (recommended grit:wheat ratio or 1:4). Generally, if mixing grit into feed rations, add at a rate of .5% to .75% of total ration. Grit Feeding Schedule. Chicks and poults can mistake grit for feed with damaging results
• I've been really pleased with the Red Ranger broilers from McMurray so far but have to stock up on feed for their last 6 weeks. I asked McMurray about their FCR and they said it's 2. This seems a bit optimistic to me as even the Label Rouge breed from Hubbard has a FCR of 2.7 to 3.0 at 12 weeks. I'd love it if these guys have a 2.0 FCR but it seems too good to be true
• Moreover, despite the well-known environmental burdens of livestock, only a handful of national level feed-to-food conversion efficiency estimates of dairy, beef, poultry, pork, and eggs exist. Yet such high level estimates are essential for reducing diet related environmental impacts and identifying optimal food gain paths
• g have feed conversion ratios of around two, three, eight and eight respectively

Improving feed efficiency is usually associated with improved profitability. Most measures to improve this useful index of productivity are by balancing the ratio between energy and amino acids, and (or) by improving nutrient digestibility by a number of different means. But, the feed efficiency rate can be improved even after the feed is mixed and delivered at the farm. Here are five tips to. In the first of the studies, the ZIVO product candidate mixed with corn/soy rations improved growth performance compared to the control group, as shown by a greater than .05-point decrease in Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) over the 42-day grow-out period - an improvement in growth efficiency of more than 3% These higher temperatures had effects on birds` appetite and negatively affected feed intake resulting in fluctuations in growth rate. Feed conversion ratio: The highest FCR was recorded in females (Orpington: 6.70, Tswana: 8.49) compared to males (Orpington: 2.20, Tswana: 2.60) at week 4 . However, Tswana chickens showed higher FCR than. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of breed, diet, and level of feed supplementation on growth performance, feed conversion ratio, and survivability of Sasso and Kuroiler chicken. The study was conducted in two separate phases, i.e., the starter phase (0-6 weeks of age) and grower phase (6-20 weeks of age). One thousand sixty-day-old Sasso and Kuroiler chicks were raised. Tegel Poultry's Bill Williams shared performance data that showed a company-wide average feed conversion ratio of 1.55. And it's no fluke! Tegel has steadfastly improved FCR by 1.5 points a year over the last 10 years

Feed ingredient prices and competition for grains have increased interest in the use of high levels of DDGS in poultry diets. This study evaluated the effects of including 25 and 35% DDGS in corn-soybean meal diets with or without PN Grower Broiler premix (Alltech, Inc.) on the productive performance and egg quality of laying hens from 27 to 50. Feed-to-meat conversion rates (how much feed is needed to produce a 1 kg increase in weight) vary widely depending on the class of the animal and the production practices used. Typically, 1 kg of live animal weight in a typical United States production system requires the following amount of feed: 2.5 kg for chicken, 5 kg for pork and 10 kg for. Feed can be up to 60% of livestock farmers' costs. PeckTec© gets chicks eating earlier and more often; this makes them more efficient with feed over their life. From our recent trial of two 25,000 bird sheds it is estimated that chicks reared with PeckTec© have a feed conversion ratio between 5-10% better than birds reared without the system currency devaluation and its impact on the poultry feed sector and imported breeding materials, such as day old chicks and hatching eggs. Broiler meat production growth rate slowed in 2018 when compared with the 10 percent growth seen in 2017, but it still may reach 5 percent, for a total of 2.25 millio

In the poultry diet there are many advantages. Poultry fed with DDGS have a better feed intake, feed conversion ratio, body weight and body weight gain. And DDGS improves meat and egg quality by enriching it with omega-3 fatty acids (Linoleic acid) which is good for heart patients Ideally, poultry companies should be able to decide which portion of the integration brings in more value, and which aspect of the integration should carry higher importance on breed decisions. Feed conversion, unavoidably, is going to be part of this conversation. The final outcome of field feed conversion ratio (FCR) is determined by two. Immunized chickens fed diets supplemented with .25 ppm Se or 100 IU vitamin E/kg of diet had increased body weight gain and feed intake and a tendency for lower feed conversion ratio than chickens fed unsupplemented diet after a challenge with 150,000 oocysts of Eimeria tenella

Dr. Lundy, who has a background in nutrient cycling in agroecosystems and in crop-livestock integration, became curious about the feed-conversion ratios of various livestock after an entomologist friend told him that crickets were known to be more efficient than other animals ZIVO Bioscience Successfully Confirms Poultry Growth Promotion and Feed Conversion Ratio Improvements in Typical Production Environments Provided by Accesswire Jan 11, 2021 7:50 PM UT Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR): Feed conversion ratio is the ratio of dry matter intake to live-weight gain. A typical range of feed conversion ratios is 4.5 -7.5 with a lower number being more desirable as it would indic ate that a steer required less feed per pound of gain. Feed conversion ratio is a good measure for monitoring or describin Below is a list of our top egg laying chickens. 1. Pearl White Leghorns These are excellent layers of large, white eggs. Pearl White Leghorns are our most prolific layers. They also have an excellent feed conversion ratio, which helps to keep down the feed costs associated with egg production. 2. Red Stars These are [

What is the Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR)? The FCR is simply the amount of feed it takes to grow a kilogram of fish. For example, if it requires two kilograms of feed to grow one kilogram of fish, the FCR would be two. This means that when a feed has a low FCR, it takes less feed to produce one kilogram of fish then it would if the FCR were higher Feed cost per pound of gain takes into account the feed conversion ratio by dividing the total feed cost by the net production. The way to calculate the feed cost per pound of gain in cents is to first convert feed cost from dollars per ton to cents per pound. Since there are 2,000 pounds per ton, simply divide the feed cost in dollars per ton. Both products were applied at the proper rate for litter age in the brood chamber. After evaluation of the 43.9 million birds included in this demonstration, it was shown that when raised on PLT, broiler feed conversion improved by 0.02 on large birds and 0.04 on small birds Provided are: a method for rearing poultry and a method for improving feed conversion ratio (FCR) of poultry, each method being characterized by comprising, in rearing poultry, administering Bacillus coagulans to the poultry at a later stage of production; and a feed additive composition for improving FCR of poultry, said feed additive composition comprising Bacillus coagulans CP3425.

feed conversion ratio: for every one broiler,a certain amount of feed is consumed. eg: 100 broilers is feed 800kg of feed. 100 : 800. 100 : 800. 1 : That's the impact a 0.01 reduction in feed conversion rate would have on the industry. The pig industry already has made a gradual genetic improvement over time on feed conversion rates: 6:1, 4:1, 3:1 and now 2.7:1. As genetics continue to advance, the entire pig industry should be able to reach a feed conversion of 2:1 as soon as 2025 poultry farm feed conversion ratio (FCR) analysis - StepanPakholok/poultry The best feed conversion rate I've come up with for our pastured chickens is about 5:1, but when I provide unlimited feed, I'm at more like 5.6:1. When we feed moderately high quality feed, we spent about \$18 per 50 pound bag on broiler feed this spring. In which case, your rabbits would be more expensive per pound than our chickens The feed conversion ratio (FCR) is the amount of feed ingested by an animal which can be converted into one kilo of live weight. Feed conversion is calculated per live weight. Use the live weight information provided by the processor to calculate feed costs/kilogram. The number will increase if there are any condemns, as this will be a loss

POULTRY FEEDING . Poultry production in Manitoba centres largely on farm where ample supplies of grain are grown. This can and should lead to low-cost, efficient production. Grain in some form may comprise 75% to 90% of a well-balanced poultry ration Under ideal conditions with a well-balanced ration, a modern white hybrid turkey can reach 6 kg in weight by 10 weeks of age, with a feed conversion ratio (the ratio of the amount of feed eaten to body weight gain) of about 2:1. Commercial turkeys are bred specifically to have more meat in the breast and thighs

### Performances of local poultry breed fed black soldier fly

• A low feed conversion ratio indicates your pigs are efficiently turning feed into bodyweight. A high feed conversion ratio means your pigs might not be using the full potential of your feed program. As an example, you might feed 665 pounds of feed to a pig in the weeks it weighs between 40 pounds and 280 pounds
• Consideration of the feed conversion ratio (FCR) achieved during chicken production can be used to estimate total feed consumption. In the UK, our survey and the broiler management manuals suggested average FCR to have been 1.6 in 2016 [ 26 , 27 ], although variation in efficiencies of production would be expected to change FCR, suggesting that.
• Data on feed intake and weekly weight gain were recorded. Cloacal temperature of each chicken was monitored at days 28, 32, and 42. Data collected were statistically analyzed using the 2 x 5 factorial experiment in CRD. Native chickens had lower (P0.05) mean final weights, average weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio than.
• i-type white leghorn

### Feed Conversion Ratio: A Tool For Effective Livestock Feedin

• These birds are chosen for their obvious upsides: low feed conversion rate, quick rate of growth, low production costs, the broad breast and high ratio of white meat to dark meat, and ready availability. The problem with the CRX and similar fast-growing modern hybrids is that they have certain downsides for the small-scale poultry producer
• by dividing feed intake by weight gain, resulting in typical values around 1.8 for 42 day old broilers. Thus the lower the number (referred to as Feed Conversion Ratio - FCR) the more efficient the flock was in using the feed supplied. In some European countries, however, feed efficiency is calculated as weight gain divided by feed intake, and
• 1. Relationships between feed conversion ratio, growth curve parameters and carcase composition were investigated on 1061 chickens from a slow-growing line of label-type chickens. The growth curve was modelled with the Gompertz function
• The formula is: (Average grams gained/day X % survival rate )/Feed Conversion X 10 So with an average growth of 61 g (for instance an end weight of 2,257 kg in 37 days) and a survival rate of 96% (100 - 4% mortality) and a feed conversion of 1.62, the outcome would be
• the effect of magnetizing drinking water on poultry performance, but results are inconsistent. The current project was conducted to evaluate the effect of magnetizing the drinking water on key aspects of poultry production such as Feed Conversion Ratio, Body Weight Gain, Feed Intake and Livability
• Feed and nutrition; Poultry; (FCE) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The most common method for broilers is FCR, calculated by the amount of feed needed per kilogram of bodyweight gain, and.
• Addition 0.5% reduced feed conversion ratio, but all levels had no effect on growth performance and feed intake of broiler chicks Mashayekhi et al (2018) Eucalyptus camaldulensis . Added with basal diet at levels of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0

Calculate Feed Conversion Ratio(FCR) for different types of animals. Facts: Specifically FCR is the mass of the food eaten divided by the body mass gain, all over a specified period of time. It is often expressed for the amount of time an animal is on a specific feeding system, but also may be measured for an age period of the animal The livestock industry has used feed conversion ratio, feed conversion rate or feed conversion efficiency to measure an animal's efficiency in converting feed mass into increased body mass. This has been used by the beef, poultry, swine and fish industries as a way to measure profitability Hurnik, J.F., Summers, J.D., Walker, J.P. and Szkotnicki, W. (1977) Production traits influencing the individual feed conversion ratio. Poultry Science 56 : 912 - 917 CrossRef Google Scholar Katle , J. ( 1991 a) Selection for efficiency of food utilization in laying hens: direct response in residual food consumption and correlated responses. Conversion Factors; A set of factors is developed for each type of livestock and poultry by relating feed consumption for each type of livestock to the feed consumed by the average milk cow. Milk/feed ratio is the number of pounds of 16-percent protein mixed dairy feed equal in value to 1 pound of whole milk

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