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# Voltage drop formula uk

### Calculate Voltage Drop in an Electrical Installation

• lb is the design current of the circuit. An alternative method is to use the voltage drop Tables in BS 7671 Appendix 4, and calculate the voltage drop using the formula : Vd= mVAm x lx lb ÷ 100
• Voltage Drop = (mV/A/m) x Ib x L / 1000. (mV/A/m): To find the value for (mV/A/m) we need to look in the current carry capacity and voltage drop tables within Appendix 4, and the fastest way to finding the table you need is by using Table of Tables on page 522
• maximum acceptable volt drop specified by the IEE Regulations is 2.5% of the system voltage, i.e. 0.025 x 415 = 10.5 volts for 3 phase working or 0.025 x 240 = 6.0 volts for single phase working. Consider a 3 phase system The requirement may be for a load of 1000A to be transmitted over a route length of 150m, the cable to b
• The voltage drop formula points out how the supplied power from the voltage source is condensed as electric current flows throughout the elements that do not supply the voltage of the electrical circuit. Moreover, the voltage drops across the internal resistances and connectors of the source are unwanted since the supply energy is lost
• The formula for Voltage Drop is (mV/A/m) X Ib X Length / 1000 How many millivolts per amp per meter (mV/A/m) a conductor loses can be found in the current carrying capacity and voltage drop tables in Appendix 4 of BS7671
• Voltage Drop 5 Answer: First, calculate the total voltage drop allowed in the circuit. This is done by (240 volts x 2%) or 4.8 Voltage Drop. Then use the single-phase formula for circular mils where: K = 12.9 ohms-cmil/ft for copper; I = 40 amps; L = 500 ft.; and voltage drop
• ed by subtracting the conductor's voltage drop from the voltage source, 120 volts - 6 volts drop = 114 volts. 3

### Calculating Volt-Drop with the 18th Edition - the-Regs

1. Cos θ = Power Factor: Motors see 6-5, 6-6, .6-.8 is usual see 5-1 to 5-8 for more power factor calculations, also 8-2 Given voltage drop, find wire size Voltage Drop 3∅ = √3 I (Z) L Z = Voltage Drop = Vd √3 I L √3 IL Voltage Drop 1 ∅= 21 (Z) L Z = Voltage Drop = Vd 2 I L 2 IL Procedure (Example).
2. The voltage drop is the amount of electrical potential (voltage) loss caused by the contrary pressure of the wire. If the current is alternating, such contrary pressure is called impedance. Impedance is a vector, or two-dimensional quantity, consisting of resistance and reactance (reaction of a built up electric field to a change of current)
3. The voltage drop V in volts (V) is equal to the wire current I in amps (A) times 2 times one way wire length L in meters (m) times the wire resistance per 1000 meters R in ohms (Ω/km) divided by 1000: Vdrop (V) = Iwire (A) × Rwire(Ω) = Iwire (A) × (2 × L(m) × Rwire (Ω/km) / 1000 (m/km)) 3 phase calculatio
4. e the required cable size and approximate values for the voltage drop, percentage drop, current load and max cable load of the specified electrical circuit. The calculations are based on information provided in IET Wiring Regulations 18th Edition
5. Calculations. To calculate voltage drop: Multiply current in amperes by the length of the circuit in feet to get ampere-feet. Circuit length is the distance from the point of origin to the load end of the circuit. Divide by 100. Multiply by proper voltage drop value in tables. Result is voltage drop

### Voltage Drop Calculations - CSE Distributor

• Voltage drop formula for steel hose. This is the unity power factor, the cable temperature 75˚C and the approximate voltage drop formula on the cable carrier in the steel hose. Vd = (2 x k x q x i x d) / cm for single phase. Vd = (1.732 x k x q x i x d) / cm for three stages
• Voltage drop is calculated using the most universal of all electrical laws: Ohm's Law. This states that the voltage potential across the conductor is equal to the current flowing through the conductor multiplied by the total resistance of the conductor. In other words, Vd = I x R
• The voltage drop formula for 3 phase systems is the following: where: VD = The voltage drop of the circuit, in volts. R = The resistance of the conductor. I = Amps. L = Length of the circuit from power supply to load. CM = Circular-Mils (conductor wire gauge) Notes: • The National
• The total voltage drop of 3.84 % falls within the applicable maximum of 5 % The total voltage drop expressed in volts, line-to-neutral, is 8.83 V given by; (3.84 x 230 V) ÷ 100 = 8.83 V. Guidance on other installation matters are covered in the NICEIC and ELECSA Site Guide, newly revised to the 18th Edition of BS 7671
• maximum acceptable volt drop specified by the IEE Regulations is 2.5% of the system voltage, i.e. 0.025 x 415 = 10.5 volts for 3 phase working or 0.025 x 240 = 6.0 volts for single phase working. Consider a 3 phase system The requirement may be for a load of 100A to be transmitted over a route length of 150m, the cable to b
• Cable voltage Drop (2.2%) is less than defined voltage drop (5%) = O.K Number of cable runs (1) ≥ (139A / 187A = 0.78) = O.K Cable short circuit capacity (8.2KA) is higher than system short circuit capacity at that point (6.0KA) = O.K 95 Sq.mm cable satisfied all three condition, so it is advisable to use 3.5 Core 95 Sq.mm cable
• Voltage Drop. Power. KiloWatts. Amps. Cable Run Length (m) Calculate. Results Phase : Power : Length : Core Size : Voltage Drop : Calculate Another Disclaimer. The recommended cable sizes are based upon information provided by the user and are intended as a guide only. The calculation is derived from BS7671 Requirements for Electrical.

### Voltage Drop Formula - Definition, Equations, Example

Determines wire size to meet specific voltage drop limits or calculates voltage drop for a specific conductor run. When sizing conductors, calculations limits wire size to voltage drop and NEC ampacity. Southwire's Voltage Drop Calculator is designed for applications using AWG and KCMIL sizes only. How to calculate voltage drop, you ask Voltage drop formula for a given cable size Use a voltage drop formula to assist you to manually calculate voltage drop in cables To accurately calculate the voltage drop for a given cable size, length, and current, you need to accurately know the resistance of the type of cable you're using

### Cable Calculations Part 2 - the-Regs

1. This cable calculator is set for Installation method C (Clipped Direct), for cable types BS5467 and BS6724 SWA (Steel wire armoured cable) and is based on the voltage drop selected at 230V single phase and 400V three phase. If you need any further help with sizing your cable please call one of our team on 01244 28813
2. Step 3 - Check / Calculate Voltage Drop: Check for voltage drop with the cable size chosen. Below is the formula to calculate the voltage drop of an electrical circuit based on the wire size and load current. This calculator assumes that the circuit will operate in a normal condition room temperature with normal frequency
3. imum of 480 volts and 430 V should be at utility end.. Also see: Why in India 11kV, 22kV, 33kV, 66kV, 132kV Why India has 50 Hz Power System and US has 60 Hz 110 Volts Power Syste
4. Voltage drop in direct-current circuits: resistance. Consider a direct-current circuit with a nine-volt DC source; three resistors of 67 ohms, 100 ohms, and 470 ohms; and a light bulb—all connected in series.The DC source, the conductors (wires), the resistors, and the light bulb (the load) all have resistance; all use and dissipate supplied energy to some degree
5. Since the 3-phase loading will be unbalanced, do I change the voltage drop calculation? Using Table 4D4B (I am derating the cable to 70degC rather than 90degC due to connection temperature constraints): V = (2.4mV/A/m * 36m * 63A)/1000 = 5.44V I believe that this is in relation to 400V (rather than 230V) and hence is a 1.4% voltage drop

### Mike Holt Voltage Drop Calculation

If the wire size is increased to #6 AWG for voltage drop considerations then the conductor operating temperature would be (50A / 65A) 2 x (75°C - 30°C) + 30°C = 57°C. This results in a slight reduction of the voltage drop and may be useful for marginal calculations Example 1: Determine voltage drop Run a No. 10 stranded wire 200 ft at 20A. Per Table 9, our ohms to neutral per 1,000 ft is 1.1 ohms. To complete the numerator, multiply as follows: (2 x 0.866) x 200 ft x 1.1 ohms x 20A = 7620.8 Dividing 7621 by 1000 ft gives a voltage drop of 7.7V. This drop is acceptable for our 480V circuit I am trying to remember how to carry out a DC voltage drop calculation. I have got a 24V DC led driver supplying a number of led luminaries and i am trying to check what the maximum cable length which i can achieve for a 24V DC supply. if i use the typical AC formula this is not given me anything near what the specification sheet even allows for

### Voltage Drop Calculato

1. Default SWA cable, table 4D4B at 70° Celcius SWA cable, table 4E2B at 90° Celcius Calculations are made up to 6.9 Volts Single Phase (3% of 230v) and 12 Volts Three Phase (3% of 400v
2. UK regulations limit voltage drop to 4% of supply voltage. Calculating Voltage Drop. In situations where the circuit conductors span large distances, the voltage drop is calculated. If the voltage drop is too great, the circuit conductor must be increased to maintain the current between the points
3. To complete the numerator, multiply as follows: (2 x 0.866) x 200 ft x 1.1 ohms x 20A = 7620.8 Dividing 7621 by 1000 ft gives a voltage drop of 7.7V. This drop is acceptable for our 480V circuit. A No. 12 would drop 11.8V. Boost the length to 500 ft, and that No. 10 drops 18V; the No. 12 drops 29V

Voltage Drop and Power Formulas for Electrical Engineers Custom Search Working with single phase, three-phase and DC (direct current circuits) and you quickly need to reference formulas for voltage drops and power calculations for a given conductor In-Time Electrical Training — An explanation of the what voltage drop is, with a hands-on example

### Voltage Drop Calculator - RapidTables

1. e the VD%, the operating voltage must be used
2. The National Electrical Code (NEC) provide basic method in calculating voltage drop in the system. This code provides data of standard conductor properties that can be used in voltage drop calculation. Voltage drop formula: Vd = ( 2 x Z x I x L )/ 1000 ---> for single phase system; Vd = ( 1.73 x Z x I x L) / 1000 ---> for three phase system; where
3. Voltage drop (V D) 3 Phase = 1.73 X I X L X K / Cmils Voltage drop (V D) Single Phase = 2 X I X L X K / Cmils Where K=12.6 for CU and K=21.2 for AL 3- Get Voltage drop (V D) in percent from the following Formula

Hi, I've been doing some revison and came across 2 different equations for voltage drop. The first one is; Vd = mV/A x Ib x L divided by 1000 The second one is; Vd = (R1 + R2) x Ib x Multiplier The multiplier is to compensate the difference in conductor temperature at the time of the test.. For DC closed circuits, we also use Kirchhoff's circuit law for voltage drop calculation. It is as follows: Supply Voltage = Sum of the voltage drop across each component of the circuit. Voltage Drop Calculation of a DC Power Lin

Furthermore, the electrical engineering portal's website provides a spread sheet for voltage drop calculation. Permissible Voltage Drop in India Official Guidelines from the National Electrical Code, published by the Bureau of Indian Standards in 2011 4.2.10 Voltage Drop in Consumers' Installations 4.2.10.1 Acceptable values of voltage drop Calculate Cable Size and Voltage Drop: Calculate Voltage Drop and Size of Electrical cable for following data. Electrical Details: Electrical Load of 80KW, Distance between Source and Load is 200 Meter, System Voltage 415V Three Phase, Power Factor is 0.8,Permissible Voltage drop is 5%, Demand Factor is 1, Cable Laying Detail: Cable is directed burie Current Rating and Voltage Drop Single Core Cables having PVC Insulation, Unarmoured, With or Without Sheath (Copper Conductor) 450/750V or 600/1000V Current-Carrying Capacities (Amp) PVC & PVC/PVC Cables Reference Method 4 (Enclosed in conduit in thermally insulating wall etc) Reference Method 3 (Enclosed in conduit on a wall or in trunking etc

Voltage drop is the amount of voltage loss that occurs through a circuit due to this impedance. For equipment to operate properly, it must be supplied with the right amount of power, which is measured in watts which is calculated by multiplying current (amps) x voltage (volts) Voltage Drop NEC 310-16 wire ampacity tables do not take into account voltage drop, only thermal limit. Overhead triplex, use 310-16 for wire ampacity. Rule of Thumb If circuit is loaded up to ampacity and distance to load is around 100 feet, then voltage drop will govern and will require larger wire size. If more than 3 phase wires are in on

### Video: Voltage Drop Calculator TLC Electrica

Concept Cables Limited is an independent insulated wire and cable manufacturer providing cabling solutions for a whole spectrum of industries across the UK, Europe and worldwide. Voltage Drop Calculator - Concept Cable the sum of the voltage drops around any closed path in a circuit is zero the total current flowing into or out of a junction of wires in a circuit is zero the voltage across a resistor is equal to..

Voltage Drop Formula for Steel Conduit. This is the approximate voltage drop formula at unity power factor, cabal temperature 75˚C, and cable conductors in steel conduit. V D = (2 x k x Q x I x D) / cm for Single Phase. V D = (1.732 x k x Q x I x D) / cm for Three Phase. Where The cable size results for International standard cable are calculated from IEC 60364-5-52: Low Voltage Electrical Installations, selection and erection of electrical equipment - Wiring systems and are based on 230V and 415V voltage drop. In both BS and IEC calculations, the KW calculation is based on a power factor of 0.8 Calculates the maximum wire length of a single round wire of common conducting materials using the formula below. Wire Length = ( VD x 1000) / (LC x 2 x R) Where: VD = Voltage Drop LC = Load Current R = Resistance. The resistance is then matched to the corresponding wire gauge value as per the American Wire Gauge standard (AWG) And the output from BR1 is about 15vdc. We cannot try to take more than 33mA from BR1 - because it would simply cause a drop in voltage. So we settle for a maximum current of say 30mA. We also want to reduce the 15vdc to 12v - using R2 and ZD3. Since the voltage across ZD3 is fixed at 12 volts - the remaining 3 volts must be across R2

The figure below illustrates the voltage drop as defined by the Philippine Electrical Code and the National Electrical Code. Voltage Drop Formula for Voltage Drop Calculation. Based on IEEE Std 141-1993, the Phasor diagram of Voltage Relations for Voltage Drop Calculations is as shown on the figure below. Voltage Drop Phasor Diagra Volts= Voltage drop. Length= Total Length of wire in metres (including any earth return wire). Current= Current (amps) through wire. Area= Cross sectional area of copper in square millimetres. Notes • This formula only applies to copper at 25°C, voltage drop increases with wire temperature, at approx 0.4% per °C

The voltage drop will be Vdrop = 10 A × 2 × 1 Ω = 20 V. Therefore, only 210 V will be available for your appliance. And P = 20 V × 10 A = 200 W will be wasted as heat in the wire. What is the Allowable Voltage Drop The maximum conductor voltage-drop recommended for both the feeder and branch circuit is 5% of the voltage source (120V). The total conductor voltage drop (feeder and branch circuit) shouldn't exceed 120V×0.05=6V. Calculate the operating voltage at the load by subtracting the conductor voltage drop from the voltage source: 120V-6V=114V Choose 3% allowable voltage drop recommended by the NEC to determine if we need to choose the next higher conductor size or not. With 3% tolerance the lowest voltage value from 220 V is 213.4 Volts. Voltage at Point A: 220 V - 1.4V = 218.6 Volts %Vd @ point A = 1.4V / 220V =0.63% ---> allowe Voltage Formula. V = I * R . Where V is the voltage; I is the current; R is the resistance; Voltage Definition. Voltage is known as the electric potential difference between two points. The Si unit for voltage is volts. The difference in electrical potential is often times caused by electric charge, electric current, or magnetic fields. 2. Voltage drop. All elements of an electrical circuit have resistance, including electrical cable, which means that there will be energy loss in the form of voltage drop experienced along the length of the cable. Just as a bulb converts electrical energy into heat and light due to its resistance, and so induces a voltage drop, a copper.

### Voltage drop calculation methods with examples explained

At 12 Vdc, a 300 mA camera at 100 feet on standard 18 awg will have a voltage drop of 0.38 volts. Industry standard is +/- 10% which is 1.2 volts. In this example, you are within limits. Example Voltage Drop = 1 * (2 * 20 * 0.01785 / 1.3) Voltage Drop = 1 * (0.714 / 1.3) Voltage Drop = 0.549. Once you have done the calculation, you would be able to compare the above figure against the original voltage of 12 volt in order for you to see the percentage drop

Welcome to the Voltage Drop Calculator website. We hope to provide you with the best online voltage drop calculator, as well as all relevant information regarding voltage drop formulas, equations, and calculations, and more! Calculate Voltage Drop. Select your system type and voltage. Select the wire gauge. Enter the voltage (V The LED's Operating Voltage is 2.0 Volts (if you had more then one just add up each voltage, so 3 LED's would use 6 volts) The LED's Operating Current is 20ma (Milliamps) or 0.02 Amps We need to find out 2 things, one the Resistance value needed to drop 12 Volts to 2 Volts and the second part of the problem is the wattage rating of the resistor

Voltage drop (volts)/system voltage (12 or 24V or other voltage) x 100. You can also use the calculator below to workout the voltage drop for a given wire size and length carrying a known current. For example, the final voltage received by an appliance when you use 12ft (one-way) wire of 10 AWG supplied with 13.8V DC is 13.5 V(2% voltage drop) Calculating Voltage Drop. Dan gave two ways for someone to calculate voltage drop—manual calculation and with a voltage drop calculator. Manual Calculation. In order to calculate voltage drop, one must first obtain the expected direct current resistance from the applicable standard or measure the resistance through the length of cable in. Voltage Drop Across a Resistor Calculator . A Voltage divider calculator calculates the voltage drops on each resistor load, when connected in series. Enter the total voltage supply, Resistance of first load, second load and third load and click calculate. You will get the results of voltage drops in volts So if you have 12 volts coming out of the transformer the voltage drop equation tells us the voltage will be reduced by 1.68 volts to 10.32 volts. 10.32 volts will produce a slightly yellowish light. We recommend using a multi-tap transformer so you can increase the voltage to get each landscape light above 10.8 volts

### Voltage Drop Calculator And Formula - Solved Examples-EET-202

Before any voltage drop calculations can be carried out for a ring circuit, it is necessary to determine the distribution of current in the circuit. The current distribution can be determined by applying Kirchoffs laws, as explained in the following worked example. The example relates to a ring final circuit supplying three loads, as. Simply use the above formula for each wire run and add the voltage drop totals for each circuit section together for the total voltage drop. Then divide by the source voltage (in this example we will use 24VDC) and then multiply by 100 to come to a total voltage drop percentage Voltage drop in accordance with CENELEC CLC/TR 50480. Project management and team collaboration, with clear easy to read calculations and reports. Our software is the only cloud-based solution and has been built from the ground up to be fully responsive - meaning you can access your cables from anywhere and on any device, desktop, tablet or. Deconstructing our voltage-drop calculation formula (shown above) we find that the conductor length, current, and source voltage are all variables we can change in our design. Taking a step back and comparing typical values from five to 10 years ago with current standards, we can already start to see why concern for voltage drop is less relevant

The voltage loss along the cable also causes power loss which is wasting energy unnecessarily. The trade off is between the additional cost and weight of thicker cabling, and the loss of power and heat generation. Targeting to keep voltage drop under 3% (there and back) is good practice, although the calculator will allow you to select 1-5% For three-phase circuits, the formula varies. It is wire circular mils = (conductor resistivity)(2)(amps)(one way distance in feet)(.866) / allowable voltage drop. In standard formulas, the conductor resistivity for copper is 11.2 and for aluminum, it is 17.4 when the temperature is 127 degrees Fahrenheit Voltage Drop Simplified Calculation's based on Australian Wiring Rules AS3000:2007 - Clause 3.6 C4 Simplified Voltage Drop - Table C7 Voltage Drop-Simplified Method. CALCULATE Supply Voltage. Cable Run Length Mtr's. Current Load A. Cable Size mm 2. Enter Values * *. All calculations are performed according to the NFPA-70 (National Electrical Code) - never have to carry your copy again! Find voltage drop in volts and percent, maximum length or minimum wire gauge

### 3 Phase Voltage Drop Formula - Voltage Drop Formul

Provides calculations for several alternative harmonic mitigating and filtering designs, including: Motor Voltage Drop Calculator. Calculator that provides voltage drop caused by the starting of motors at the substation transformer primary and secondary leads. SCCR slide rule The Simplest of Calculations If you know what volt drop you can work with then the formula for calculating it is: 18 x cable length in m x amps/ (volt drop x1000)= mm² cable Where 18 is a constant, the resistance of copper wire Voltage drop in an electric circuit can be calculated using Ohm's law as U = R I (1

### Calculating Voltage Drop with NICEIC - Professional

Voltage drop is simply the arithmetical difference between a higher voltage and a lower one. The amount of power (energy per second) delivered to a component in a circuit is equal to the voltage. ON AN ASYMPTOTIC FORMULA FOR THE MAXIMUM VOLTAGE DROP IN A ON-CHIP POWER DISTRIBUTION NETWORK MARIA AGUARELES1, JAUME HARO2, JOSEP RIUS3, AND J. SOLA-MORALES` 2 Abstract. We present a new asymptotic formula for the maximum static voltage in a simpliﬁed model for on-chip power distribution networks of array bonded integrated circuits Voltage drop Formula for DC/Single Phase: Vdrop = I*R. Here I is the flow of current and R is the resistance of the circuit and R will be calculated by below formula. The resistance of the wire = resistivity of the material* Length/Cross-section of the cable, Learn More: kW to VAR Conversion Calculator The point of minimum potential can be found by following the same procedure as discussed in the previous case. Thus in this case, Voltage drop between A and B = Voltage drop over AB or V1 − V2 = Voltage drop over AB 36Dr.A.Arunagiri 37. 38. 38Dr.A.Arunagiri 39. A 2-wire d.c. distributor AB is fed from both ends

### 3 phase voltage drop tables ElectriciansForums

Example v G is a sine wave (Figure FSBa) of RMS amplitude, V G = 230 volts at a frequency f = 50 hertz - standard values for the UK mains supply. You apply this to a 3.5 henry inductance. What current will flow? v G = √2 × V G sin (2 π f × t) = 1.41 × 230 × sin (2 × 3.14 × 50 t This means that the voltage drop across each is just the total voltage of the circuit divided by the number of resistors in the circuit, or 24 V/3 = 8 V. Resistor Voltage Drop Calculator See the Resources for an example of an instance in which you can use an automatic tool to calculate the voltage drop in a kind of circuit arrangement called a. The total conductor voltage drop (feeder and branch circuit) shouldn't exceed 120V×0.05=6V. Calculate the operating voltage at the load by subtracting the conductor voltage drop from the voltage source: 120V-6V=114V. Therefore, the correct answer is (c), 114V

Voltage Drop V ( ) d =2× I ×R×cosθ+I ×X ×sinθ where : Vd = voltage drop in circuit sinθ = load reactive factor X = reactance 5.4 ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC), THREE-PHASE V denotes line to line voltage. Basic Formulas Apparent Power kVA =(V I× 3) kVA = kW 2 +kVAR 2. Calculations are based on a 3% voltage drop. 3. These charts are solely for estimating purposes only, not for design. 4. Amperages are approximate, not exact. 5. Conduit fill is according to fill % in the NEC, however sometimes a larger conduit is more practical for wiring pulling purposes depending on length of circuit Actual Voltage drop for 35 feet = (7 x 35/100) x (24.5/28) = 2.1V And Allowable voltage drop = (2.5 x 220)/100 = 5.5V Here The Actual Voltage Drop (2.1V) is less than that of maximum allowable voltage drop of 5.5V. Therefore, the appropriate and most suitable cable size is (7/0.036) for that given load for Electrical Wiring Installation

### An example how to calculate voltage drop and size of

BS 7671. ProDesign can automatically enforce the voltage drop limits stated in Appendix 4 Section 6.4. Alternatively, user derived voltage drop limits can be applied. ProDesign is the UK's leading electrical design software which provides full electrical design and calculations to BS 7671. This is a powerful The app will instantly calculate and display the minimum cable size, the voltage drop - in volts and as a percentage - and the load current in amps. To save you time, the supply voltage defaults to 230 V, but you can change this if you need to

Voltage Drop is a decrease in the voltage created by internal resistance to the flow of electricity through the wire. It is the difference between the voltage supplied at the beginning of a wire run (at the transformer) and that at the end of the wire run Voltage Divider Calculator; Voltage Divider Calculator. Input Voltage Volts. Resistor R1 Ω. Resistor R2 Ω. Output Voltage Volts. Calculate Values Reset Form. To calculate the Input Voltage enter Resistor R1, Resistor R2 and Output Voltage and then click Calculate Values UK standard cable is always 0 value on voltage drop in revit 2018 given all of this data Voltage=230V Length=16.2meters Current=.77A Cable Type - 6491B A (3/4) #1.0mm Please help. Hoping for your positive response : So,net resistance of thee upper wire is (1*1)/(1+1) +0.5=1 Omega and that of the lower wire is (4*4)/(4+4) =2 Omega So,net resistance of the circuit is (1*2)/(1+2) = 2/3 Omega So,current flowing through the circuit is 14/(2/3)=21 A now,volatge drop across the parallel combination of two 4 Omega resistors is similar to the voltage drop across.

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